anal squamous cell cancer is an uncommon malignancy caused by infection with oncogenic strains of human papilloma virus. Anal cancer is much more common in immunocompromised persons, including those infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) means there are abnormal cells in the lining of your anus. A pathologist looks at your cells under a microscope to check whether your anal cells look different to normal anal cells. anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) is a premalignant lesion for anal cancer. , human papilloma virus (hpv)human immunodeficiency virus infections, post-organ transplantation patients, and men who have sex with men) and development is driven by hpv infection. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) may be precursive for scc, and screening cytology with referral of persons with abnormality for high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy, and ain treatment, has. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (ain) is an increasingly common condition for which the best treatment has not been well established. Traditional management was based on a watch and wait strategy, but as the natural history of ain and its progression to anal cancer is becoming better understood, more active treatment strategies are warranted. If anal intraepithelial neoplasia is the anal squamous-cell carcinoma precursor, dr. Goldstone said, then by ablating hsil we hopefully will prevent progression to cancer. Ideally, he was looking for a procedure that was office-based, well tolerated with minimal time out of work, afforded acceptable recurrence rates, and able to be performed by non-surgeons.